عنوان مقاله [English]
The relation between evil and human’s actions has been the puzzling question for the minds of scholars especially the Muslim theologians and philosophers for some time. This relation has been discussed through various aspects; however, in this article, the matter of how improper actions effect evil is been discussed, and since this topic is tied with the action of human in nature, the relation of human with nature has been reviewed as well. Since the materialistic do not believe in the principle of the Creation, they reject the role of human’s actions in creating evil incidents and consider it as a religious theory. The Ashʿarites, considering their doctrine of Occasionalism, relate every event to the Almighty and do not consider any role for the will of human. But the contemporary Shia scholars have chosen other views: ʿAllāma Sadr by his theory of Istikhlaf (appointing successors), believes that human is the one trusted with the world of nature and his actions must be according to the rules of the one being trusted, that the Almighty has placed. ʿAllāma Ṭabāṭabāī also by mentioning the theory of Istikhdam & Taskhir, considers the human as part of the world that follows the system of cause and effect. This system of causality, in addition to the Almighty (as the Real Cause), consists of material causes, as the first or close cause, and spiritual causes as the intermediary causes, which are formed by the effects of human’s actions by his or her choice. Among these the sins, in addition to their final punishments, have material and immaterial effects embedded within them in this world that this article concluded through research and review of the views and reasoning that the first view has the priority.